Non-adherence to self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in poorly controlled type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.


  • Muhammad Akbar Shah Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar.
  • Sajida Riaz Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar.
  • Fasih Iqbal Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar.
  • Muhammad Salman Aamir Fauji Foundation Hospital, Peshawar.
  • Tahir Ghaffar Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar.
  • Khalid Usman Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar.



Non-Adherence, Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose (SMBG), Type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes


Objective: To access non-adherence to self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) in poorly controlled type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Study Design: Prospective Descriptive study. Setting: Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Hayat Medical Complex Peshawar. Period: July 2023 to January 2024. Methods: The study comprised 296 patients, 50 patients had type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and 246 had type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Participants were selected based on defined criteria of poor glycemic control characterized by persistent hyperglycemia and raised HbA1c. SMBG profile was assessed and common factors recorded. Results: The patient mean age was 60 years with a standard deviation of 9.8. Non-adherence to SMBG was observed in 45.94%. Non-adherence to SMBG was 40% in Type 1 DM whereas in Type 2 DM it was 47.15%. Factors responsible for non-adherence were, not knowing about SMBG (60%), lack of glucometer (54%), the uselessness of SMBG (36%), costly strips (80%), inability to check SMBG (50%), painful procedure (30%), and SMBG inconvenient (40%). Short history of diabetes (55%) T2DM (47.15%), Illiteracy (52.94%), negative family history of diabetes (51%), and poor economic condition (73.52%) were common predictors. Conclusion: The research gives an important insight in to the demography, treatment modalities, non-adherence and adherence to self-monitoring blood glucose testing, various factors responsible and predicting non-adherence to SMBG.

Author Biographies

Muhammad Akbar Shah, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar.

FCPS (Medicine), Fellow Endocrinology, 

Sajida Riaz, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar.

FCPS (Gynaecology and Obstetrics), Consultant Gynaecologist, 

Fasih Iqbal, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar.

FCPS (Medicine), Fellow Endocrinology, 

Muhammad Salman Aamir, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Peshawar.

FCPS (Medicine), Fellow Diabetes & Endocrinology/Assistant Professor, 

Tahir Ghaffar, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar.

FCPS (Medicine), FCPS (Endocrinology), Associate Professor Endocrinology, 

Khalid Usman, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar.

FRCP, Associate Professor Endocrinology,