Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) levels in renal failure: Unraveling the complex interplay of protein metabolism and kidney health.


  • Rashad Mahmood MBBS Medical College Mirpur AK.
  • Misbah Batool Poonch Medical College
  • Najma Majeed MBBS Medical College, Mirpur, Kashmir.
  • Zara Shoukat FUIC.
  • Ahmad Munir Qureshi MBBS MC.
  • Muhammad Shoaib MBBS Medical College.



Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), Kidney Health Complex Interplay, Protein Metabolism, Renal Failure


Objectives: To evaluate serum calcium, assess creatinine's muscle function marker, and analyze BUN as a protein metabolism indicator in renal failure. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Tehsil Samahni District Bhimber Kashmir. Period: April 2020 to July 2020. Material & Methods: A total of 90 subjects, including 60 with renal failure and 30 healthy individuals from Tehsil Samahni District Bhimber Kashmir registered with THQ hospital for dialysis, were categorized by age and gender. Blood samples were collected after the written consent of each patient and analyzed for serum calcium, serum creatinine, and BUN using an automated analyzer. Ninety subjects were divided into groups based on age and gender. Blood samples were collected and subjected to serum calcium, serum creatinine, and BUN assays using an automated analyzer to evaluate renal function and calcium homeostasis. Results: Serum creatinine levels were significantly elevated in all renal failure groups compared to the healthy group, indicating impaired renal function. However, serum calcium levels remained relatively stable across all groups. Notably, BUN levels were significantly higher in all renal failure groups except for females aged 1-40 years. Conclusion: Renal failure is indicated by elevated serum creatinine, highlighting kidney dysfunction, while serum calcium stability may not be indicative of renal failure. Elevated BUN levels imply disrupted protein metabolism, underlining the complex role of these biomarkers in renal health, and necessitating refinement of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for renal diseases.

Author Biographies

Rashad Mahmood, MBBS Medical College Mirpur AK.

MBBS, M.Phil, Ph.D, Associate Professor Physiology, 

Misbah Batool, Poonch Medical College

M.Phil (Physiology), Assistant Professor Physiology, 

Najma Majeed, MBBS Medical College, Mirpur, Kashmir.

MBBS, M.Phil, Assistant Professor Biochemistry, 

Zara Shoukat, FUIC.

MBBS, PGT Physiology, 

Ahmad Munir Qureshi, MBBS MC.

M.Phil (Community Medicine), Assistant Professor Community Medicine, 

Muhammad Shoaib, MBBS Medical College.

MBBS, MPH, Assistant Professor Community Medicine