Prevalence and associated factors of hypertension in young adults: A cross-sectional study.


  • Zaib Zahid Akhter Saaed Medical College, Lahore.
  • Muhammad Abdullah Shah PAF Teaching Hospital Mushaf Sargodha.
  • Haider Tanvir City Hospital, Multan.
  • Awais Amjad CHM Kharian Medical College, Kharian.
  • Noor e Sehar Butt Hameed Latif Hospital, Lahore. 
  • Fahad Asim Hajvery University, Lahore.



Hypertension, Multivariate Logistic Regression, Obesity, Smoking, Sedentary Lifestyle, Young Adults


Objective: To explore the relationships between hypertension and modifiable risk factors such as daily smoking, sedentary lifestyle and obesity in young adults. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Akhtar Saeed Teaching Hospital, Lahore. Period: July 2022 to Dec 2022. Material & Methods: Cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a sample population of 500 individuals, aged 18-39. A standardized, self-administered questionnaire was used to gather information on tobacco usage, physical activity level, parental history of hypertension, and other relevant demographic information. Additional assessments such as dietary habits were conducted through face-to-face interviews. Multivariate logistic regression models were employed to assess the associations between hypertension and various risk factors, controlling for age, gender and BMI categories. Results: The study corroborated the significant association between daily smoking and hypertension (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.3–2.4, p = 0.001) and revealed an 80% increase in hypertension risk associated with a sedentary lifestyle (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.7, χ² = 8.21, p = 0.004). Obesity was also strongly associated with hypertension (aOR = 3.2, 95% CI 2.1–4.8, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between males and females in terms of hypertension risk. Conclusion: Hypertension is significantly associated with smoking, sedentary lifestyle and obesity.

Author Biographies

Zaib Zahid, Akhter Saaed Medical College, Lahore.

FCPS, Senior Registrar Medicine, 

Muhammad Abdullah Shah, PAF Teaching Hospital Mushaf Sargodha.

FCPS, PGR Medicine, 

Haider Tanvir, City Hospital, Multan.

MBBS, Medical Officer, 

Awais Amjad, CHM Kharian Medical College, Kharian.

MBBS, M.Phil, Assistant Professor Physiology, 

Noor e Sehar Butt, Hameed Latif Hospital, Lahore. 

Pharm D, Hospital Pharmacist/Quality Assurance Officer, Hameed Latif Hospital, Lahore. 

Fahad Asim, Hajvery University, Lahore.

M.Phil, Lecturer Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmacy,