Assessment of risk factors for nephrolithiasis in Rawat.


  • Mahvesh Mahmud Watim Medical College, Rawalpindi.
  • Maryam Anwar Ziauddin University, Karachi.
  • Hassan Mansoor Watim Medical College, Rawalpindi.
  • Muhammad Farrukh Abbas Awan Watim Medical College, Rawalpindi.
  • Muddasar Pervaiz Al Nafees Medical College, Islamabad.
  • Khurram Baqai Ziauddin University, Karachi.



Adult, Nephrolithiasis, Prevalence, Risk Factors, Renal Sonography


Objective: To identify the risk factors for nephrolithiasis among all patients found to have nephrolithiasis on renal sonography. The study will help us report the incidence of renal stones in this area, and as they cause significant morbidity and high costs of healthcare, and guide towards the introduction of public health measures to reduce the incidence of nephrolithiasis. Study Design: Descriptive, Questionnaire Based Cross-sectional study. Setting: Watim General Hospital, Rawalpindi. Period: Jul 1st, 2023 to Sep 30th, 2023. Material & Methods: The data of all adult patients who underwent renal sonography and were documented to have nephrolithiasis was obtained through physician administered questionnaires from the ultrasound department records. Data was then entered and analyzed by using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 16. Results: Data was collected on 115 patients, of these, 57% were males. 48% of the patients were aged between 18-30 years of age. 54% of the patients belonged to lower socio-economic class. 55% of them had low water intake, and 81% consumed non-purified water. 51% patients also had a positive family history. 81% of the patients had less intake of citrus fruits and 37% of them never exercised. Conclusion: Many significant risk factors were assessed. Awareness campaigns and preventive health measures should be implemented addressing the critical risk factors. This will help decrease the burden on patients, and on the health care system.

Author Biographies

Mahvesh Mahmud, Watim Medical College, Rawalpindi.

MBBS, DABIM Med/Neph, Associate Professor Nephrology, 

Maryam Anwar, Ziauddin University, Karachi.

MBBS, Resident Medical Officer, 

Hassan Mansoor, Watim Medical College, Rawalpindi.

MBBS, FCPS, Senior Registrar Urology, 

Muhammad Farrukh Abbas Awan, Watim Medical College, Rawalpindi.

MBBS, FCPS, Registrar Urology, 

Muddasar Pervaiz, Al Nafees Medical College, Islamabad.

MBBS, MPH, Associate Professor, Community Medicine, 

Khurram Baqai, Ziauddin University, Karachi.

MBBS, FPCS, Assistant Professor,