Sonographic determination of the association between grades of hydronephrosis and detection of kidney and ureteric calculi.


  • Mahvesh Mahmud Watim Medical College, Rawalpindi 
  • Muddassar Pervaiz Al-Nafees Medical College, Islamabad.
  • Nabeel Akhtar Advance International Hospital, Islamabad.
  • Muhammad Farrukh Abbas Awan Watim Medical College, Rawalpindi.
  • Maryam Anwar Ziauddin University, Karachi.
  • Aftab Turabi Watim Medical College, Rawalpindi.



Hydronephrosis, Renal Stone, Ultrasound


Objective: To correlate the grades of hydronephrosis and the detection of urinary stones by ultrasound imaging. Study Design: Cross-sectional, Retrospective study. Setting: Watim General Hospital, Rawat. Period: Jan 1, 2023 and Mar 31, 2023. Material & Methods: All patients on whom a renal sonogram showed hydronephrosis and nephrolithiasis between Jan-Mar 2023 > 18 years of age and < 70 years of age were included. The data were obtained retrospectively from the ultrasound department records. All patients were scanned while lying flat on their backs. Data regarding hydronephrosis grades and the presence of nephrolithiasis was obtained. Results: There were 248 individuals with hydronephrosis due to nephrolithiasis whose ultrasounds were included in this investigation. All patients had urinary stones and as hydronephrosis progressed from grade 1 to 3, the detection rate of stones increased, before declining in grade 4. Patients with grade 3 hydronephrosis had four times the risk of having urinary stones as grade 4 patients (Odds Ratio = 5.675, 95% Confidence Interval [Cl]=3.345-4.648). Conclusion: The sensitivity of sonography to identify grades of hydronephrosis and identify their underlying causes is of diagnostic importance. Hydronephrosis is often brought on by kidney stones or ureteric calculi, and a higher grade should raise clinical suspicion for the presence of renal calculi.

Author Biographies

Mahvesh Mahmud, Watim Medical College, Rawalpindi 

MBBS, DABI, Associate Professor Nephrology, 

Muddassar Pervaiz, Al-Nafees Medical College, Islamabad.

MBBS, FCPS, Associate Professor Community Medicine, 

Nabeel Akhtar, Advance International Hospital, Islamabad.

MBBS, FCPS, Senior Registrar Urology, 

Muhammad Farrukh Abbas Awan, Watim Medical College, Rawalpindi.

MBBS, Registrar Urology, 

Maryam Anwar, Ziauddin University, Karachi.

MBBS, Resident Medical Officer Medicine, 

Aftab Turabi, Watim Medical College, Rawalpindi.

MBBS, FCPS, Ph.D, Professor Pharmacology,