Cephalometric evaluation of mandibular incisor inclination through incisor mandibular plane angle (IMPA): A cross-sectional study in Pakistan.


  • Neeraj Dherwani University College of Medicine & Dentistry, The University of Lahore.
  • Vishal Dherwani Muhammad Dental College, Mirpurkhas.
  • Talha Asad Khan Bolan Medical College, Quetta.
  • Kashif Haroon Azra Naheed Dental College.
  • Hafiz Mahmood Azam Muhammad Medical and Dental College, Mirpurkhas.
  • Muhammad Aqeel Aslam Muhammad Dental College, Mirpurkhas.




Cephalometric Analysis, Incisor Mandibular Plane Angle, IMPA


Objective: To evaluate the incisor mandibular plane angle (IMPA) among the Pakistani population. Study Design: Cross-sectional Learning. Period: 1st January 2019 till 30th June 2019. Setting: Department of Orthodontics, University College of Dentistry The University Lahore. Material & Methods: 100 participants were incorporated in the learning by following inclusive standards. Demographic history i.e. name, age, gender, contact, and outcome variable i.e. IMPA value was recorded in a pre-designed proforma. Tracing of lateral cephalogram diagnosed as Class II Division I malocclusion was done by placing the Matte Acetate tracing paper over the radiograph. IMPA was used to assess the lower incisor inclination parameter Data were analyzed by using SPSS-20. Post-stratification students' t-test was smeared with p-value ≤ 0.05 as significant. Results: Out of 100 subjects, 44 subjects were males while the 56 subjects were females. The mean IMPA among all the patients were found to be 107.71°±3.89°. Whereas, the mean IMPA in male and female subjects was 106.91°±3.62° and 108.34°±4.01°, respectively. Similarly, the mean IMPA in non-obese subjects was 107.81°±3.81° and in obese subjects was 107.13°±4.41°, respectively. However, a non-significant relationship was found between both factors. Conclusion: The mean IMPA in patients with “Class II Division I malocclusion” is 107.71°±3.89° with a minimum and maximum value of 100° and 117° which may be incorporated for the treatment plan among Pakistani population.

Author Biographies

Neeraj Dherwani, University College of Medicine & Dentistry, The University of Lahore.

BDS, CHPE, FCPS-II Training, Lecturer Orthodontics, 


Vishal Dherwani, Muhammad Dental College, Mirpurkhas.

BDS, CHPE, FCPS-II Training, Registrar Orthodontics, 

Talha Asad Khan, Bolan Medical College, Quetta.


BDS, MDS (Operative Dentistry), Assistant Professor Dental Section, 

Kashif Haroon, Azra Naheed Dental College.


BDS, M Orth RCS (UK), CHPE, Assistant Professor Orthodontics, 

Hafiz Mahmood Azam, Muhammad Medical and Dental College, Mirpurkhas.

BDS, M. Phil, CHPE, Associate Professor Science of Dental Materials, 


Muhammad Aqeel Aslam, Muhammad Dental College, Mirpurkhas.