Frequency of two canals in mandibular central incisors in Karachi Pakistan: An in-vitro study.


  • Sana Syed Hamdard University, Karachi.
  • Sheikh Haroon Shah Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.
  • Fariha Irfan Hamdard University. Karachi, Pakistan.
  • Hina Hammad Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan.
  • Abdur Rehman Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan.
  • Syed Abrar Ali Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan.



Mandibular Central Incisors, Morphological Variation, Root Canal Treatment


Objective: To determine the frequency of two canals in mandibular central incisors using a radiographic technique in a sample representing Karachi Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional in Vitro study. Setting: Hamdard University Dental Hospital. Period: January, 2022 to July, 2022. Material & Methods: According to inclusion criteria 187 extracted mandibular central incisors were collected, flushed under running tap water. 10% formalin was used as storage media afterwards. The attached periodontal tissues and calculus remaining after extraction were removed using a 1/2 Gracey Curette. Number 2 round bur was used in a high speed hand piece to initiate access chamber opening of the pulp chamber. Irrigation was done with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite to make the pulp chamber clearly visible. Detection and negotiation of second canal were performed by using Dental Operating Microscope. No. 15 K-files were introduced into the main canals. Two peri-apical radiographs were exposed at different angulations using DIGORA OPTIME for confirmation. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 23. Results: Mean age of the patients included in the study were 37.12±12.81 years. According to gender distribution there were 101 (54%) males and 86 (46%) females. Outcome concludes that in mandibular central incisors frequency of two canals was 28.3 %. Conclusion: Presence of two canals in mandibular central incisors among Pakistani population in our study was 28.3%. When endodontic therapy is commenced on these teeth, dentist must consider the possibility of existence of second canal and exercise caution.

Author Biographies

Sana Syed, Hamdard University, Karachi.

BDS, FCPS, Resident Operative Dentistry, 

Sheikh Haroon Shah, Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

FCPS, BDS, Assistant Professor Dental & Maxillofacial Surgery, 

Fariha Irfan, Hamdard University. Karachi, Pakistan.

FCPS, BDS, Assistant Professor Operative Dentistry, 

Hina Hammad, Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan.

FCPS. BDS. Assistant Professor Operative Dentistry, 

Abdur Rehman, Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan.

MDS, BDS, Professor Dental Materials, 

Syed Abrar Ali, Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan.

FCPS, BDS, Professor and Head Department of Operative Dentistry,