Prevalence of nosocomial infection Pre- and Post-COVID 19 Pandemic in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Karachi.


  • Mahvesh Mahmud Watim Medical College, Rawalpindi.
  • Ashok Kumar Ziauddin University, Karachi.
  • Mariam Ali Ziauddin University, Karachi.
  • Sareema Eman Akhtar Ziauddin University, Karachi.
  • Saad Shakil Ziauddin University, Karachi.
  • Maryam Anwar Ziauddin University, Karachi.



COVID-19, Infection Control Practices, Nosocomial Infections


Objective: To evaluate the role of the COVID-19 pandemic in the prevalence of nosocomial infections in patients admitted to the Ziauddin University Hospital, Clifton Campus, Karachi. Study Design: Retrospective Cross-sectional study. Setting: Ziauddin University Hospital, Clifton Campus, Karachi. Period: Pre-COVID: Feb 1, 2019 – Jan 31, 2019 Post-COVID: May 1 2020- Apr 30, 2021. Material & Methods: Clinicians retrospectively reviewed all Infectious Disease Department medical records for a list of all patients who developed a NI after 48 hours of admission to the hospital. The diagnosis of NI had been formulated by clinicians on the basis of clinical, radiological and microbiological findings. Results: We found an increase in certain types of NIs, and stability in the infection rate for many other organisms, which may be due to improved infection control practices during COVID. This information will lead to a better understanding of infection control practices in the future, and will better guide clinical decision making. Conclusion: The strict and proper implementation of infection control protocols during the COVID-19 outbreak has reduced the rate of NIs. It has been evident that NIs can be minimized by creating a positive attitude, improving awareness and staff hygiene practices and behaviours, and the provision of facilities to comply with the of infection control protocols’ standards.

Author Biographies

Mahvesh Mahmud, Watim Medical College, Rawalpindi.

DABIM Int Medicine, Associate Professor Nephrology, 

Ashok Kumar, Ziauddin University, Karachi.

FCPS (Pulmonology), Associate Professor, 

Mariam Ali, Ziauddin University, Karachi.

FCPS (Pulmonology), Assistant Professor, 

Sareema Eman Akhtar, Ziauddin University, Karachi.

Medical Student, 

Saad Shakil, Ziauddin University, Karachi.

Medical Student, 

Maryam Anwar, Ziauddin University, Karachi.

MBBS, Resident Medical Officer,