An analysis of risk factors for ENT diseases: A case study of D. G. Khan and Rajanpur Districts, Punjab, Pakistan.


  • Mujahid Hussain Govt Graduate Boys College.
  • Muhammad Ejaz Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.
  • Aamna Khan Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.



Binary Logistic Regression, ENT Diseases, Odds Ratio, Risk Factors


Objective: To determine the core risk factors of Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) diseases at D. G. Khan and Rajanpur districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross Sectional Case Control study. Setting: A sample of 1553 individuals including two categories, ENT Diseased (Case) and ENT diseased free (Control) respondents including both males and females was collected from different hospitals of D. G Khan and Rajanpur Districts. Period: June 2021 to June 2022. Material & Methods: Data for this study have been collected by formulating a questionnaire. That questionnaire was then completed by face to face interviewing. Chi-squared test is used to check the association between the assumed risk factors and ENT diseases. Odds ratios are calculated to measure the strength of association between assumed risk factors and ENT diseases. Looking at the dichotomous nature of the response variable, a binary logistic regression model is also applied to assess the overall influence of potential risk factors on developing the ENT diseases. Results: In our sample of 1553 respondents, 41.47% are females and 58.53% are males. The percentage of clinically diagnosed ENT diseased patients is 54.92% and those of controlled ones is 45.08%. Among the diseased respondents, 57% have ear disease, 19.2% have nose disease and 23.8% have throat disease. Age, education, family status, family system, marital status, slow physical activity, smoking, Naswar, Paan, family history, occupation, work place, water, ventilation, nutrition and tea are found to be the most significant risk factors of developing the ENT diseases. Conclusions: The occurrence of ENT diseases can be reduced by giving the awareness to the people about its risk factors.

Author Biographies

Mujahid Hussain, Govt Graduate Boys College.

M.Phil (Statistics), Assistant Professor, 

Muhammad Ejaz, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.

Ph.D (Statistics), Assistant Professor Statistics, 

Aamna Khan, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.

Ph.D, Lecturer Statistics,