Aetiology and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacterial pathogens in respiratory specimens of COVID-19 patients on respiratory support: A tertiary care hospital study.


  • Shafqat Husnain Khan CMH, Lahore.
  • Muhammad Abid CMH, Lahore.
  • Asad Ahmad CMH, Lahore.
  • Anam Tariq CMH, Lahore.
  • Ayesha Bashir CMH, Lahore.
  • Chahat Hussain CMH, Lahore.



Antibiotic Susceptibility, Clinical Laboratory Stanadard Institute (CLSI), COVID-19, Carbapenemases, Kirby Bauer Disk Diffusion Method, Metallo Beta Lactamases (MBL)


Objective: To describe aetiology and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacterial pathogens in respiratory specimens of covid-19 patients on respiratory support in tertiary care hospital of Lahore. Study Design: Descriptive study. Setting: Microbiology Department, CMH, Lahore. Period: May 2021 to October 2021. Material & Methods: A total 107 isolates from 145 patients who were COVID-19 positive and on respiratory support were included in the study. Bacterial isolates were isolated from clinical samples according to standard protocol of culturing and incubation. Antibiotic sensitivity, carbapenamase detection was done according to CLSI 2021. Molecular identification of carbapenem resistant genes blaIMP and blaVIM was determined by PCR. Results: A total of 107 bacterial isolates were isolated from clinical specimens. A. baumannii was the most common isolated organism. Colistin and aminoglycosides were found to be the most effective antibiotics. Among carbapenem resistant isolates 89.5% were MHT positive and among these 59 (86.8%) were MBL positive. Among MBL positive isolates, 5.61% and 29.91% were positive for blaIMP and blaVIM respectively. Conclusion: Patients admitted for COVID-19 treatment are at higher risk of acquisition of secondary bacterial infections and antibiotic resistance among such pathogens is at alarming.

Author Biographies

Shafqat Husnain Khan, CMH, Lahore.

FCPS (Microbiology Trainee), Microbiology, 

Muhammad Abid, CMH, Lahore.

MBBS, FCPS, CI. & Classified Microbiologist, 

Asad Ahmad, CMH, Lahore.

MBBS, House Officer, 

Anam Tariq, CMH, Lahore.

MBBS, FCPS (Microbiology Trainee), Microbiology, 

Ayesha Bashir, CMH, Lahore.

MBBS, FCPS Microbiology Trainee, Microbiology, 

Chahat Hussain, CMH, Lahore.

FCPS (Microbiology Trainee), Microbiology,