Frequency of microalbuminuria and its relation to HbA1C in type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients.


  • Ayesha Iqbal Indus Hospital, Karachi.
  • Javeria Salman Maajee Hospital, Hyderabad.
  • Jawed Habib Indus Hospital, Karachi.
  • Mumtaz Ali HANDS Pakistan.
  • Sadia Naveed Gul Medical Center, Nawabshah.
  • Aaqib Ali Indus Hospital, Karachi.



Albuminuria, Diabetes Mellitus Type 2, Glycated Hemoglobin A


Objective: To determine frequency of microalbuminuria and relative determination of glycated hemoglobin (HBA1C) in Type II diabetes mellitus patients. Study Design: Descriptive Cross Sectional. Study Setting: Three Different Hospitals Based in Sindh Pakistan. Study Period: March-August 2021. Material & Methods: After selection through non-probability purposive sample technique, demographic details of all patients were noted in a written questionnaire. All the confirmed patients of type-II diabetes mellitus were then tested for microalbuminuria and glycated hemoglobin in parallel with the disease progression. All the collected information was analyzed in SPSS ver. 22. Results: Among 165 enrolled cases, 89 (54%) type II diabetic patients were normoalbuminuric, 53 (32 %) Microalbuminuria and 14 % macroalbuminuria. Males were at greater risk (65%) of developing type II diabetes mellitus in comparison to females (35%). In total 46 type II diabetes mellitus cases with microalbuminuria represent raised HBA1C levels AT95% CI. Conclusion: Prevalence of microalbuminuria among type II diabetic patients visiting the tertiary care hospital is 32.1%. Patients with higher HbA1c or poor glycemic control are present with microalbuminuria.

Author Biographies

Ayesha Iqbal, Indus Hospital, Karachi.

MCPS, Senior Specialist Family Medicine and Diabetologist, 

Javeria Salman, Maajee Hospital, Hyderabad.

MBBS, MCPS (Family Medicine), Diploma in Diabetology (BIDE), Diploma in Diabetes and Endocrinology (CFMP), Diabetologist and Family Physician, 

Jawed Habib, Indus Hospital, Karachi.

MBBS, MCPS, MRCGP, Senior Registrar and Specialist Family Medicine, 

Mumtaz Ali, HANDS Pakistan.

MBBS, Diploma Diabetes and Endocrinology, Diploma Aerospace Medicine Diabetologist and Manager Health, 

Sadia Naveed, Gul Medical Center, Nawabshah.

MBBS, MCPS (Family Medicine), Diploma in Diabetes and Endocrinology (CFMP), 

Aaqib Ali, Indus Hospital, Karachi.

FCPS, Consultant,