Prevalence of gallbladder disease in type 2 DM and prediabetes in Somali Mogadishu: A single center experience.


  • Öznur SARI Ankara, Turkey.
  • Ahmed Muhammad Bashir Training and Research Hospital, Mogadishu, Somalia.



Africa, Cholelithiasis, Diabetes Mellitus, Gallstones, GBD, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, Somalia


Objective: To assess the clinical and ultrasonographic findings of gallbladder disease in diabetic, prediabetic, and non-diabetic patients. Study Design: Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study. Setting: Somali Mogadishu Hospital. Period: January 2017 and June 2019. Material & Methods: T2DM, prediabetes, demographic data, and gall bladder findings. Results: The study included 1,020 patients, 65.6% of whom were female, with a mean age of 50.51 ± 17.98. In our study, in which the number of non-diabetic people was 425 (41.7%), the rate of T2DM was found to be 36.3%, and the rate of prediabetic patients was found to be 22.1%. The frequency of T2DM (41%) and prediabetes (23.9%) was found to be higher in men with GBD than in women (33.8% and 21.1% in women, respectively). Increased gallbladder wall thickness frequency was also found to be more common in the T2DM and prediabetic groups than in the non-DM group (p<0.001). Conclusions: Patients with GBD have a significantly increased T2DM frequency (one in 3 patients) and prediabetes (one in five patients). More than half of patients have 2 or more gallstones, and a third have bile sludge. Impaired glucose tolerance is considered to be a major factor in the development of GBD in Somali patients.

Author Biographies

Öznur SARI, Ankara, Turkey.

MD, Internal Medicine, Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Public Hospitals, 

Ahmed Muhammad Bashir, Training and Research Hospital, Mogadishu, Somalia.

MD, Internal Medicine, Mogadishu Somali Turkey, Recep Tayyip Erdogan,