Risk factors of diabetic retinopathy - a cross sectional study from Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi.


  • Salman Tariq DHQ Teaching Hospital, Rawalpindi.
  • Mafaza Naseem Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi.
  • M. Rizwan Khan Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi.
  • M. Imran Janjua Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad.
  • Hurmat Fatima Azeem Rawalpindi Medical University, Rawalpindi.
  • Fuad Ahmad Khan Niazi Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi.




Diabetes, Non- proliferative, Proliferative, Retinopathy


Objective: To assess the major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy in patients presenting to the eye OPD of the Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi. Study Design: Descriptive Cross-sectional study. Setting: Department of Ophthalmology, Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi. Period: March 2018 to September 2018. Material & Methods: 330 patients presenting at the diabetic clinic of Holy Family Hospital aged between 30-70 years with both type I and type II diabetes for ≥5 years (diagnosed by checking fasting blood sugar or HbA1C). History including age, gender, weight, height, duration of diabetes mellitus and control of diabetes mellitus was taken on a pre-designed proforma. Slit lamp examination was performed by the consultant ophthalmologist to check for Diabetic Retinopathy (NPDR and PDR). Results: Mean age of the patients was 50.4±9.8. Patients were distributed according to the age groups showing that 56(56%) of the patients were diabetics, 61(49.9%) with NPDR and 48(48%) with PDR in the 30-50 year group. While 51-70 year group included 44(44%) diabetics, 69(53.1%) with NPDR and 52(52%) with PDR. There was no significant association between history of hypertension and diabetic retinopathy (p=0.804) or BMI and diabetic retinopathy (p=0.451). There was significant association between diabetic retinopathy and duration of diabetes (p=0.035) as well as diabetic retinopathy and Hb1Ac levels (p=0.001). Gender variations were statistically significant (p=0.001), with females being more affected than males. Conclusion: Diabetic retinopathy is strongly associated with female gender, longer duration of diabetes and poor glycemic control.

Author Biographies

Salman Tariq, DHQ Teaching Hospital, Rawalpindi.

MBBS, MCPS, FCPS, Senior Registrar Ophthalmology, 

Mafaza Naseem, Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi.

MBBS, Resident Medicine, 

M. Rizwan Khan, Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi.

MBBS, Fellowship in Pediatric Ophthalmology, Senior Registrar Ophthalmology, 

M. Imran Janjua, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad.

MBBS, FCPS, Senior Registrar Ophthalmology, 

Hurmat Fatima Azeem, Rawalpindi Medical University, Rawalpindi.


Fuad Ahmad Khan Niazi, Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi.

MBBS, FCPS, FRCS, MCPS-HPE, Professor Ophthalmology,