Risk factors associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients in Nishtar Hospital Multan.


  • Zahra Nazish Nishtar Medical University, Multan.
  • Fatima Tu Zahra Nishtar Medical University, Multan.
  • Haroon Aziz Khan Babar Nishtar Medical University, Multan.




COVID 19, Mortality, Risk Factors


Objective: To identify risk factors associated with mortality in COVID-19. Study Design: Retrospective Cross Sectional Study. Setting: Nishtar Hospital Multan. Period: April 2020 to September 2020. Material & Methods: Charts of all PCR confirmed COVID-19 cases expired during the study period. Results: Out of 96 cases, 62(64.6%) were male and 34(35.4%) were female. Sixty five (67.7%) were from urban areas. Niney two (95.8%) patients had a co-morbid condition. Fifty two (54.2%) had diabetes, 42(43.8%) had hypertension, 29(30.20%) had heart disease, 21(21.9%) had chronic kidney disease, 14(14.5%) had chronic lung disease and 5(5.2%) had chronic liver disease. Mean respiratory rate was 25.01±7.80, mean SaO2 was73.99±17.53 and 57(59.37%) had bilateral infiltrates on chest X-ray. Mean CRP was 59.95±46.28, mean S/LDH was 765.92 ±266.61, mean S/Ferritin was 1446.00±1261.69 and mean D-dimer was 1.26±0.45μg/ml. Thirty five (36.45%) had sepsis, 26(27.08%) had cytokine storm, 17(17.7%) had respiratory failure and 13(13.5%) had hypotension. Conclusion: Male gender, old age, diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and chronic kidney disease were associated with increased mortality in COVID 19. Tachypnea, hypoxia, bilateral infiltrates on chest X-ray and raised inflammatory markers also had poor prognosis. Sepsis, cytokine release syndrome, shock, and respiratory failure were common complications. These high risk patients with COVID 19 should be timely admitted and managed aggressively to improve outcome.

Author Biographies

Zahra Nazish, Nishtar Medical University, Multan.


Associate Professor Medicine


Fatima Tu Zahra, Nishtar Medical University, Multan.


House Physician

Haroon Aziz Khan Babar, Nishtar Medical University, Multan.

MBBS, MRCP (UK), MRCP (Ireland), FRCP (Ednberug), FACC (USA)

Head Cardiology