To determine the outcome of isolated hemorrhagic TBI in a large tertiary care center in Karachi, Pakistan.


  • Syed Maroof Hashmi Abbasi Shaheed Hospital, Karachi.
  • Arif Raza RIPAS Hospital Brunei Darussalam.
  • Shiraz Ahmed Gauri Dr. Ruth K.M Pfau Civil Hospital Karachi.
  • Ramesh Kumar Dr. Ruth K.M Pfau Civil Hospital Karachi.
  • Syed Muneeb Younus National Medical Center, Karachi.



Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Subdural Hematoma, Neurosurgical Intervention, Epidural Hematoma


Objective: To assess the outcome of mild traumatic brain injury patients who have isolated intracranial hemorrhages. Study Design: Cross-sectional, Setting: Department of Neurosurgery, Abbasi Shaheed Hospital, Karachi. Period: 1st January 2018 to 31st January 2020. Material & Methods: The inclusion criteria were that all the patients have to be above the age of 18 years, presented to us with mild TBI cases and had observable intracranial hemorrhage on computer tomography (CT) scan. Patient demographics and the various types of interventions were recorded. Results: A total of n= 300 patients were included in the study, The average age was 50.5 +/- 20.6 years. There were n= 180 males and n= 120 females. We performed a total of n= 45 (15%) neurosurgical interventions, the most common intervention being craniotomies performed in n= 31 (68.66%) patients. Of all the patients who underwent an intervention 64.44% had immediate intervention 20% had planned intervention as non-emergency cases, and 15.55% had delayed intervention. A one point increment in the GCS score is associated with 50% lower odds of surgical intervention having a p value of <0.001. The mortality rate in our study population was 6%.  Conclusion: We found that the length of stay and mortality are associated with an increased age and lower GCS score of the patients, care should be taken when evaluating the patients as some cases require delayed intervention hence monitoring is of prime importance.

Author Biographies

Syed Maroof Hashmi, Abbasi Shaheed Hospital, Karachi.


Senior Registrar Neurosurgery

Arif Raza, RIPAS Hospital Brunei Darussalam.


Medical Officer Neurosurgery


Shiraz Ahmed Gauri, Dr. Ruth K.M Pfau Civil Hospital Karachi.


Assistant Professor Neurosurgery

Ramesh Kumar, Dr. Ruth K.M Pfau Civil Hospital Karachi.


Assistant Professor Neurosurgery

Syed Muneeb Younus, National Medical Center, Karachi.


Consultant Neurosurgeon