• Liaqat Ali Punjab Medical College / Allied Hospital, Faisalabad.
  • Muhammad Tahir Mohy U Din C.P.E Institute of Cardiology, Multan.
  • Imtiaz Ahmed Lahore.
  • Rehan Riaz Faisalabad.



Thyroid diseases, Hypothyroidism, Hyperthyroidism, Risk factors, Cardiovascular diseases


Background: Thyroid hormones have many effects on cardiovascular function,
and deficiency or excess of thyroid hormones can result in cardiac dysfunction. Abnormalities
of the cardiovascular system are often identified during examination of hyperthyroid and
hypothyroid patients. Objective: The aim of this study was to address the effects of thyroid
hormones on the cardiovascular system and the clinical relevance of the cardiovascular
response to thyroid dysfunction. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: The study
was conducted at Allied Hospital / Punjab Medical College Faisalabad and PINUM Hospital
Faisalabad. Period: October 2014 to August 2015. Materials and Methods: Total 100 patients
with thyroid disease (Hypo/hyperthyroidism) were enrolled in the study. Any patient age ≥20
years, that had documented history of thyroid disease (Hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism) or
on medications for thyroid disorder was recruited in this study. Results: Total 100 consecutive
patients with abnormal thyroid function tests who fulfill the inclusion and exclusion criteria
were enrolled in the study. Mean age was 47.9 ± 23.20 years. 16 % were male and 84%
were female. Majority of the patients 37( 37%) were in age group 51 - 60 years. 53 % were
suffering from overt hyperthyroidism and 31 % were suffering from hypothyroidism. Subclinical
hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism was present in 7% and 9% patients respectively. Goiter
was present in 24 % patients. Atrial fibrillation was observed in 34% hyperthyroid patients.
Overall 23% were diabetics and 25% had H/O hypertension. Dyslipidemia was present in
20% hyperthyroid and 25% hypothyroid patients. Echocardiography was performed in 19%
patients. 7% patients undergone thyroid surgery. Overall 11% patients were suffering from CCF.
Pulmonary hypertension was observed in 17% hyperthyroid and 35.48% hypothyroid patients.
MeanFT4 in hypothyroid patients was 1.16±022 ng/dl. Mean TSH was 10.92±21.09 (μIU/ml)
in hypothyroid and 0.19±0.14 (μIU/ml) in hyperthyroid patients. Conclusions: The outcome
of this study suggests that patients with untreated overt / subclinical thyroid dysfunction are at
increased risk of cardiovascular complications.

Author Biographies

Liaqat Ali, Punjab Medical College / Allied Hospital, Faisalabad.

MBBS, DIP- CARD (Pb), FCPS Cardiology
Associate Professor of Cardiology

Muhammad Tahir Mohy U Din, C.P.E Institute of Cardiology, Multan.

MBBS, FCPS (Medicine), FCPS Cardiology
Assistant Professor of Cardiology

Imtiaz Ahmed, Lahore.

MBBS, MCPS,FCPS (Cardiology)
Senior Registrar PIC

Rehan Riaz, Faisalabad.

MBBS, FCPS Cardiology
Senior Registrar FIC