HEAVY METALS TOXICITY:
ESTIMATION OF HEAVY METALS IN BRANDED AND LOCAL SNACKS AVAILABLE IN THE MARKETS OF PESHAWAR, PAKISTAN.
Keywords:Heavy Metals,, Snacks,, Branded,, Local.
Objectives: To estimate the concentration of heavy metals (Lead, cadmium,
Chromium and copper) in branded and non-branded (local) snacks in the markets of Peshawar,
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Setting:
District Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Period: 6 months; from December 2016 to
April 2017. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 different samples of potato and corn snacks
were selected from four towns of district Peshawar by convenient sampling technique. All
samples were subjected to wet digestion using acid digestion technique and Lead, Cadmium,
Chromium and copper were quantitatively detected, using Atomic Absorption spectrometer in
the Public Health laboratory Khyber Medical College Peshawar. Results: Mean concentration
of Lead, cadmium, chromium and copper in potato based branded snacks were in the range
of 0.085-0.423mg/kg, 0.003-0.046 mg/kg, 2.186-2.328 mg/kg and 0.008-0.108 mg/kg and
concentration of heavy metals in corn based branded snacks were in range of 0.240-0.351
mg/kg, 0.007-0.012mg/kg, 2.254-2.179 mg/kg, 0.030-0.082 mg/kg respectively. While mean
concentration of Lead, cadmium, chromium and copper in non-branded (local) snacks were
0.057-0.324 mg/kg, 0.005-0.012 mg/kg, 2.137-2.247 mg/kg and 0.018-0.06 mg/kg respectively.
Conclusion: Lead and chromium were exceeding in majority samples of branded and local
snacks. Particular concern was of chromium, which was exceeding far beyond the allowed
limits in all samples.