• Anwaar Hussain Faisalabad Medical University Faisalabad.
  • Jawaria Khalid Children Hospital Faisalabad.
  • Abdul Rauf Sargodha Medical College, Sargodha.



Clavicle, Blood Supply, Foramen Index, Nutrient Foramen of Long Bone


Objectives: To study the nutrient foramina of the dried human clavicle with respect
to their position, number and direction for clinical interest. Study Design: Cross sectional study.
Setting: Anatomy Department Faisalabad Medical University Faisalabad. Period: Six months
from July to December 2017. Material and Methods: 60 dried human clavicles taken from
bone bank of Anatomy Department Faisalabad Medical University Faisalabad. The foramina
were studied according to their location, and number and direction. The foramina index was
calculated using Hughes Formula by measuring the average total length and average length
of foramina from sternal end of the clavicle. Results: The nutrient foramen was observed in all
60(100%) of the clavicle. Single foramen was present in 22 (36.6%) clavicle and double foramen
in 30(50%) clavicle. Triple and quadruple foramen in 6(10%) and 2(3.3%) clavicles respectively.
The 34 left clavicles posses single foramen 12 (41.1%), double foramen 14(35.2%) while triple
and quadruple are 6(17.6%) and 2(5.8%) respectively. Total 26 right clavicles had 10 (38.4%)
single foramen and 16(61.5%) double foramen. Total number of foramen in all 60 clavicles
were 108 of which 61.1% are located on posterior surface of the clavicle, 27% were found on
inferior surface and rest 11.1% were on anterior surface. The clavicle having more than one
foramina are 28 out of which 64.2% was having both inferior and posterior foramina, 21.4 % was
anterior and posterior while 14.28% was located on triple sites anterior, inferior and posterior.
We also found 90% of foramina were present on middle 1/3 and 10% on lateral 1/3. 98.3% of
the foramina were directed to acromial end while rest 1.7 % to sternal end. The mean length of
foramina from sternal end is 7.46 cm and mean maximum length of the clavicle was 14.51cm.
The mean foramina index was 51.41. Conclusion: It is concluded from the study that most of
the foramina are located on middle 3rd of the clavicle the commonest site of the fractures of the
bone. Most of the foramina are located on the posterior surface denoting its blood supply from
the neighboring blood supply. The knowledge of the foramina and its blood supply is important
for fracture healing and bone grafting.

Author Biographies

Anwaar Hussain, Faisalabad Medical University Faisalabad.

MBBS, M.Phil.
Assistant Professor
Department of Anatomy

Jawaria Khalid, Children Hospital Faisalabad.

Senior Registrar
Department of Pediatrics

Abdul Rauf, Sargodha Medical College, Sargodha.

Associate Professor
Department of Community Medicine