Fulminant hepatic failure during pregnancy.
Keywords:Fulminant Hepatic Failure, Maternal Outcome, Pregnancy
Objective: To observe clinical characteristics, etiology and maternal outcome in fulminant hepatic failure during pregnancy. Study Design: Descriptive Case Series. Setting: Department of Medicine, Nishtar Hospital Multan. Period: January 2013 to December 2017. Material & Methods: Twenty nine consecutive patients with fulminant hepatic failure during pregnancy were included in the study. Results: Mean age of patients was 27.06±6.92 years. 65.51% patients were from urban areas. Mean duration of gestation was 24.80±6.03 weeks. Jaundice and altered consciousness were observed in 100% cases, pallor in 79.31%, hepatomegaly in 20.68%, flapping tremors in 10.34%, ascites in 10.34% and splenomegaly in 6.89% cases. Complications observed were cerebral edema in 44.82%, renal failure in 24.13%, bleeding in 20.68% and hypoglycemia in 3.44%. Most common cause was acute hepatitis E (75.86%) followed by hepatitis B (13.79%) and hepatitis A (3.44%). No cause was found in 6.89% cases. Overall maternal mortality was 37.93% and fetal mortality was 72.41%. In 17.24% cases pregnancy was terminated therapeutically, 44.82% cases had spontaneous expulsion and in 37.93 % cases pregnancy continued. Maternal mortality was highest (45.45%) in patients who remained pregnant as compared to 20% when pregnancy was terminated therapeutically. Conclusion: Jaundice and altered conscious level is the most common clinical presentation. Hepatitis E is the most common cause of FHF in pregnancy. Maternal mortality in FHF during pregnancy is very high.
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