Early nasal continuous positive airway pressure in preterm neonates with Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
Keywords:Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, Neonates, Preterm, Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Objective: To assess the effectiveness of early nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (nCPAP) in preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Study Design: Cohort study. Setting: Department of Neonatology, The Children’s Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Multan. Period: September 2018 to June 2020. Material & Methods: A total of 172 neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), having RDS with gestational age as 28 to 34 weeks were enrolled. All study participants were administered early nCPAP (within 6 hours of onset of RDS). All babies with RDS were evaluated using Silverman–Anderson (SA) score, blood gas analysis and pulse oximetry. Results: Out of a total of 172 neonates, most, 91 (52.9%) were mal, nourished 89 (51.7%) had gestational age between 31 to 32 weeks and 97 (56.4%) with birth-weight between 1000 to 1500 grams. Majority of the neonates, 97 (56.4%) were found to have radiological grading of RDS as moderate. Successful outcome of early nCPAP was observed in 143 (83.1%) neonates. There was no statistical difference in terms of nCPAP outcome among study participants with respect to gender (p=0.4990). Gestational age, birth weight and severity of radiological grading of RDS were significantly associated with outcome of nCPAP (p <0.00001). Arterial blood gas parameters as PO2, PCO2 and HCO3 were also significantly associated with nCPAP outcome among study participants (p<0.0001). Conclusion: Early Nasal CPAP is safe, inexpensive and effective means of respiratory support in neonates with RDS. Early nasal CPAP is useful especially in mild to moderate grade RDS.