Cyanotic congenital heart disease: Impact on growth and endocrine functions.
Keywords:Body Mass Index, Growth, Height, Weight
Objective: To find out the impact of Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease (CCHD) on growth and endocrine functions at a tertiary care child healthcare facility of South Punjab. Study Design: Case Control study. Setting: Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Institute of Child’s Health (ICH), Multan, Pakistan. Period: December 2018 to March 2020. Material & Methods: During the study period, a total of 53 cases of Echocardiography confirmed CCHD were registered. Along with 53 cases, 50 controls during the study period were also enrolled. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI) along with hormonal and biochemical laboratory investigations were done. Results: There was no significant difference between gender and age among cases and controls (p value>0.05). Most common diagnosis of CCHD among cases, 24 (45.3%) were Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) followed by 9 (17.0%) transposition of the great arteries (TGA) with Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) with Pulmonary Stenosis (PS). Mean weight of CCHD cases was significantly lower in comparison to controls (21.19+6.24 kg vs. 26.48+8.1 kg, p value=0.0003). Blood glucose was significantly lower among cases in comparison to controls (77.58+14.58 mg/dl vs. 87.25+11.82 mg/dl, p value=0.0004). No significant difference was found in between cases and controls in terms of various hormone levels studied (p value>0.05) except Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) levels (p value<0.0001). Conclusion: Children with cyanotic congenital heart disease seem to have negative effects on nutrition and growth. Change in pituitary-adrenal axis is suspected while pituitary-thyroid axis seemed to be working fine among CCHD cases. Serum glucose and IGF-1 levels were significantly decreased among CCHD cases.
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