Prevalence of refractive errors by age and gender in patients reporting to ophthalmology department.
Objectives: To determine the age and gender specific prevalence of different refractive errors in the patients presenting to the Ophthalmology Departments of the tertiary care hospital. Study Design: Analytical Cross-sectional study. Setting: Departments of Outpatient Ophthalmology at THQ Hospital Kabirwala, The Children’s Hospital & The Institute of Child Health Multan and Nishtar Hospital, Multan. Period: January 2020 to May 2020. Material & Methods: A total of 400 patients ≥ 4 years age of either gender were included. Patients with history of ocular surgery, trauma and advanced fundus disease were excluded. Age and gender of the patients was noted. Clinical examination and autorefraction were carried out. Quantitative data is presented as mean ± SD and qualitative data as frequency and percentages. Chi-square test is used to assess the association of refractive errors with age groups and gender. Results: Median age of the participants was 20 years (range 04 – 92 years). Males constituted 58% (n = 232) of the study participants. Most common refractive error were astigmatism (n=298, 74.5%) and myopia in 187 (46.75%) patients. Prevalence of myopia was significantly higher (p-value < 0.001) in 11-20 (39.6%) and 21-40 (34.2%) years age group and in males (64.7%, p-value 0.01). Hypermetropia was significantly higher (p-value <0.001) in 4-10 (36.8%) and ≥ 41 (38.7%) years age group with no gender predilection. Conclusion: This study shows prevalence of myopia being highest in males age 11-40 years and prevalence of hypermetropia being highest in children between 4-10 year and elderly ≥ 41 year with no gender predilection.