• Imam Hussain Chal Foundation, Bacha Khan Medical Complex, Swabi,
  • Muhammad Osama Foundation University Institute of Rehabilitation Sciences (FUIRS)
  • Reem Javed Malik at Shifa Tameer-e-Millat University



Congenital foot anomalies,, frequency,, congenital talipes equinovarus,, metatarsus adductus,, pes planus,, pes cavus.


Background: Congenital foot anomalies affect a large number of children
throughout the world. Rehabilitation of these anomalies is expensive and time consuming.
There are many factors responsible for these anomalies. Incidence of these anomalies varies
in different areas of the world. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of congenital
foot anomalies among children reporting at Chal foundation, Swabi, Pakistan. Study Design: A
cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: Chal Foundation, Swabi, Pakistan. Period: October
2012 – October 2014. Methodology: Sample was selected using the convenience sampling
technique. A total of 1141 patients visited the center, out of which 408 cases of congenital
foot anomalies. Patient demographics including name, age, gender and district along with
diagnosis and side involvement was noted, and analyzed on SPSS v21.0. Results: A sample
of 408 patients was taken from which 70.3% were males and 29.7% were females. The mean
age of the patients was 4.47 years at the time of visit. Only 5.9% cases were reported within the
first year after birth. Right side foot anomaly was observed in 23.8% cases and 20.3% cases
had left side foot anomaly. Bilateral anomaly was observed in 55.9% cases. Among the 408
cases, the most often reported was CTEV, observed in 79.7% cases. The second most common
anomaly was pes planus, observed in 8.8% cases. Conclusion: Congenital foot anomalies are
common musculoskeletal anomalies affecting a large number of children, the most prevalent
of which is CTEV. Unfortunately few people seek management in time either due to lack of
facilities or awareness. Prevalent cousin marriages in the society may also play an influential
role in increased risk of such anomalies to occur. Many of these anomalies can be managed
conservatively with physical therapy and orthotics if reported in due time. Attention should be
paid on educating people regarding identification and timely management of such conditions.

Author Biographies

Imam Hussain, Chal Foundation, Bacha Khan Medical Complex, Swabi,

Physiotherapist, Doctor of Physical Therapy

Muhammad Osama, Foundation University Institute of Rehabilitation Sciences (FUIRS)

Doctor of Physical Therapy
(DPT-Gold Medalist KMU),
Masters in Orthopedic Manual
therapy, (MS-OMPT*), Certificate
in Health, Profession Education

Reem Javed Malik, at Shifa Tameer-e-Millat University

Student, Doctor of Physical
Therapy (DPT)
Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT*)