Frequency of anemia and causative risk factors in patients presenting to tertiary care hospital: A cross sectional study.
Objective: To determine the frequency of anemia and its causative risk factors in patients attending the gynecology outpatient department of Nishtar Medical University and Hospital. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Gynecology Outpatient Department attendees of Nishtar Medical University and Hospital. Period: 1st September to 31st December 2019. Material & Methods: Total 361 females between 19-49 years of age were enrolled and included those patients who consented to be tested for blood hemoglobin estimation. Their brief history was taken after proper consent according to predesigned proforma to rule out the risk factors. Patients with chronic kidney disease, chronic lung diseases and liver diseases were excluded. Blood test was done by obtaining the blood sample by finger prick method. Hemoglobin analysis was performed by portable Hemocueanalyser. Frequency of anemia, severity of anemia and their stratification was performed against the risk factors like age, educational status, socioeconomic status, status of pregnancy, parity and contraception were obtained to rule the causative factors. Anemia was defined per standard criteria as hemoglobin less than 11gm/dl. Results: Majority of patients 65% were between 19-35 years of age and 34% were 36-49years of age. Frequency of pregnant patients and non-pregnant patients was 63.4% and 36.6%. Frequency of anemia was 56.8%, mean hemoglobin 10.48±1.18 with mild, moderate and severe anemia were 36.8%, 17.2% and 2.8%. Majority of females 82.9%, never went to school and had primary education, 71.70% belong to very poor and poor socioeconomic status, 79.02% were multipara and 81.95% never and infrequently practiced the contraceptive methods. Conclusion: Frequency of anemia is very high in females presenting to tertiary care hospital being more common in younger age group. Frequent pregnancies, poor socioeconomic status and low level of educational attainment were the major determinants of anemia in females.