MMP-2 levels evaluation and their relationship with breast cancer progression.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play significant part in the tumor development, metastasis and invasion by proteolytic degradation of basement membrane and extracellular matrix. Hence MMPs can serve as good biomarkers for carcinoma breast particularly MMP-2 in our population. Objectives: To measure the concentrations of MMP-2 in plasma of breast cancer patients and establishing their correlation with stage and grade of the disease. Study Design: Comparative cross sectional. Setting: Surgery department Madinah Teaching Hospital (MTH) and the Pathology department, The University of Faisalabad (TUF), Faisalabad. Period: 1st August, 2017 to 31st December, 2017. Material & Methods: Only females with diagnosed breast cancer disease along with staging and grading were included in the study. Females with incomplete reports, on chemotherapy or radiotherapy or having other diseases like oral squamous cell carcinoma, rheumatoid arthritis etc were excluded. ELISA kit was applied to measure the concentrations of MMP-2 in plasma of the participants. OD values were calculated at 450 nm by ELISA reader placed at Post Graduate Research Laboratory, The University of Faisalabad, Faisalabad. Data was gathered and results were finalized by using SPSS 22 for statistical assessment. Results: Age of 64(72%) breast cancer patients was within range of 30-76yrs and age for 25(28%) healthy females as controls range was 18-70yrs. Difference between ages of cases and controls using t-test was statistically highly significant. Ninety five percent cases showed invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) as histological type. Range of MMP-2 levels in cases was 80-690 ng/mL with mean 451.02 while range of MMP-2 levels in controls was 65-830ng/mL with mean 329.72 showing statistically significant difference. Relationship of different groups of MMP-2 levels in cases with stages of breast cancer was established using chi-square test which was statistically significant, stage IIB (37.5%) and IIIA (34.4%) tumors showed higher values of MMP-2. Relationship between MMP-2 levels, grade, tumor size and node invasion was nonsignificant statistically. Conclusion: MMP-2 levels were raised in cases in comparison to healthy controls. Age of majority patients was > 45 yrs while the invasive ductal carcinoma was the main histological type. MMP-2 levels were associated with stage of the disease.