Risk factors for hyperkalemia in cirrhotic patients receiving spironolactone.
Objectives: To determine the factors those may predict hyperkalemia in cirrhotic patients receiving spironolactone. Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: Medicine Department Shalamar Hospital, Lahore. Period: 15 days from 1st September to 15th September 2017. Materials & Methods: 150 patients with documented liver cirrhosis, receiving spironolactone and fulfilling the inclusion criteria were made part of the study. Five mL blood was drawn in two different vials; 2 mL in EDTA vial to check the prothrombin time (PT) and 3 mL in clotted vial to measure serum potassium, sodium, creatinine, urea, albumin, and bilirubin in serum after centrifugation. Potassium level was measured at baseline (Day-0) and two weeks later after receiving spironolactone. Results: Patients with raised serum creatinine (>1.3 mg/dL) and hyperbilirubinemia (>2.8 mg/dL) were found to have serum potassium more than 5 mmol/L. Increased potassium levels were found in patients receiving high dosage of spironolactone (>100mg/day). These patients had decompensated liver cirrhosis as evident from their child-class C and significant hypoalbuminemia. Conclusion: Decompensated cirrhotic patients with raised serum creatinine, hyperbilirubinemia, hypoalbuminemia and receiving high dosage of spironolactone remain at higher risk of developing hyperkalemia.