Frequency of Osteoporosis and Osteopenia and its associated factors among general population in Faisalabad.
Osteoporosis means “porous bone”. This condition occurs when body lose minerals like calcium more than body can replace it and this leads to thinning of bone mass and increase fragility of bones. This disease is a silent public health issue because of its increasing morbidities, mortalities and disabilities. Objectives: 1. To determine the frequency of osteoporosis and osteopenia. 2. To find out risk factors associated with osteoporosis and osteopenia. Study Design: This was a Cross Sectional study. Setting: In a private sector Medical College of Faisalabad. Period: From 1st June 2018 to 1st December 2018. Material & Methods: After approval from ethical review committee, this study was conducted through the BMD screening camps held in a private sector Medical College of Faisalabad. It was a cross-sectional study. Data was collected through well-structured close-ended questionnaire. Convenient sampling was done. Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound machine was used to assess bone mineral density of the participants through their right heel. BMD values in the form of T-score were converted by machine. Results: Out of 116 participants 20 (17%) were male and 96 (83%) were female. Factors that were statistically (p ≤0.05) associated with osteoporosis and osteopenia were female gender and inadequate physical activity. More than 50% of the women had either osteoporosis or osteopenia and doing regular physical activity were mainly significant determinants. Exposure to sunlight was not associated with the low BMD or osteoporosis (p>0.05). Conclusion: It is concluded from this study that important modifiable risk factors like increase in calcium and vitamin D intake and life style modification can improve bone health. Health education and awareness programs with special reference to balanced diet should be held to educate general population.