Comparison of acetaminophen and nalbuphine in attenuating hemodynamic response to tracheal intubation.
Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation causes sympathetic over activity in the form of increased heart rate and blood pressure, which may lead to deleterious effects. Opioid drugs like fentanyl and nalbuphine are routinely used to attenuate this response during intubation. A few studies have claimed that acetaminophen is efficacious for this purpose too. Various studies have explored its role in blunting of pressor response but none have compared it with nalbuphine. We compared these drugs with the purpose, if both drugs are equally effective; acetaminophen would be a better alternative to nalbuphine without adverse effects of an opioid. Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of acetaminophen and nalbuphine in attenuating hemodynamic response during tracheal intubation. Study Design: Randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Setting: Main operation theatre complex of Fauji Foundation Hospital Rawalpindi. Period: From August to December 2018. Material & Methods: After obtaining permission from institutional ethical review committee of Fauji Foundation Hospital Rawalpindi. 60 Patients of ASA physical status I and II, aged 30 to 55 years, undergoing abdominal surgical procedure of 1 to 3 hour duration were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in group N received nalbuphine hydrochloride 0.15 mg/kg body weight intravenously, 30 minutes before induction. Patients in group P received acetaminophen infusion (paracetamol) 15mg/kg body weight intravenously, 30 minutes before induction. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured manually and heart rate by pulse oximeter. Observations were made before giving analgesics, during induction, 1 minute after intubation, then at every 1- minute intervals till first 5 minutes, and thereafter at 10 minutes and at 15 minutes after intubation. The descriptive statistics of data were expressed as mean and standard deviation. Independent samples t-test was used for comparison of mean values of the variables in both groups. The value of p< 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: There was a significant rise in heart rate and blood pressure after laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation with acetaminophen (P group) as compared to the N group in which nalbuphine effectively reduced the tachycardia and hypertension. Conclusion: Acetaminophen has no significant effect on the prevention of hemodynamic changes due to intubation. Nalbuphine effectively reduces tachycardia and hypertension associated with laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation.