Diagnosis of admitted diabetic patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Pakistan.
Objectives: An observational study to assess the reasons for admission of diabetic patients in a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan. Study Design: Cross sectional observational study. Setting: Department of Medicine, PN Shifa Hospital, Karachi. Period: June to August 2018. Material & Methods: All patients admitted to medical ward of PNS Shifa over a period of three months were included in the study. Admissions were done with the primary diagnosis of diabetes in both males and females aged 20-80 years, who were taking some form of hypoglycemic agents (oral or insulin). A questionnaire was formed and filled by the investigator, containing information about demographics details of the patients, duration of diabetes, duration of hospital stay, pre-existing co-morbid conditions and principal reason for admission along with blood parameters (FBS and HbA1c). Results: Mean age of admitted patients in both male and females was between 36-40 years. There were more male patients who were hospitalized. Hospital stay in days was longer for men than women. Women had done primary level of education and Men had Secondary level of education. Men had diabetes of 11-15 years duration as compared to women who had diabetes of less than 10 years duration. All patients had uncontrolled diabetes despite drug treatment and as depicted by an average HbA1c of 8.07 %. A preexisting history of Hypertension, coronary artery disease, bronchial asthma and dyslipidemia were more prevalent in all diabetic patients. The four most common reasons for hospital admissions Angina/ Acute coronary syndrome, Pneumonia, Stroke and Urinary Tract Infections. Conclusion: This study shows that diabetic patients who were admitted had more male patients and their glycemic control was poor. Diseases of cardiovascular system was the pre-existing co-morbid associated with diabetes. Infection (Pneumonia) was the major cause of hospital admission followed by coronary artery disease (Angina/ Acute coronary syndrome).