Needle stick injuries in healthcare workers of a secondary Care Hospital, Pakistan.
Needle Stick Injury (NSI) is a percutaneous piercing wound typically dealing with sharps. Needle stick injuries are the most common health care workers issue worldwide. The causes include various factors like type and design of needle, recapping activity, handling/transferring specimens, collision between HCWs or sharps, during clean-up, manipulating needles in patient line related work, passing/handling devices or failure to dispose of the needle in puncture proof containers. NSIs may transmit other bacterial, fungal, or viral infections, including blastomycosis, cryptococcosis, diphtheria, herpes, malaria, mycobacteriosis, spotted fever and syphilis. Objectives: To determine frequency of needle stick injury among health care workers. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: District Headquarter Hospital Layyah. Period: Jan to March 2019. Material & Methods: Sample size was 161. A structured pre-tested questionnaire containing both open and close-ended questions was administered during the period of Jan-March 2019. Results: Out of 161 participants, 114 (70.8%) reported having a needle stick injury at least once during their clinical practice and the frequency of NSIs was significantly higher among nurses (76.7%) as compared to Doctors (50%), Laboratory staff (45.5%) and waste handlers (70.8 %). Conclusion: Study concludes that in absence of the routine collection of accurate data on NSIs, small studies have been useful in highlighting which groups of HCWs are most at risk from NSIs.