Burden, types of diseases and outcome in LBW babies admitted at a Tertiary Care Hospital.
Objectives: LBW has long been labeled as one of the major risk factor for mortality as well as morbidity in neonates. South Asia is said to have highest number of LBWs which estimated to be 1 in 4 newborns that weigh < 2500 grams. This study was planned with an aim to note the burden, types of diseases and outcome in LBW newborns admitted at a tertiary care hospital. Study Design: Descriptive analytical study. Setting: Included all neonates admitted to NICU of Sheikh khalifa Bin Zaid Al Nahyan Teaching Hospital, Rawlakot. Period: 1st July 2018 to 31st December 2018. Material & Methods: The prevalence of LBW amongst all admissions was calculated along with demographic features of all LBW babies like disease, reasons for the admission, duration of hospital stay along with outcome was noted on a predesigned proforma. Results: Out of total of 1410 admission in NICU during the study period, 512 (36.3%) were noted to be LBW. Amongst LBW babies, mean weight was 1.91 kg while 269 (52.5%) were male and 243 (47.5%) female. There were 364 (67.6%) babies born at full term. There were 82 (16.0%) with birth weight of less than 1.5 kg, 166 (32.4%) between 1.5 to 2 kg while 264 (51.6%) were above 2 kg. Amongst all LBW babies, mortality was reported in 185 (36.1%) while 112 (60.5%) died on the 1st day of admission. Respiratory distress syndrome (31.4%), sepsis (20.3%) and neonatal jaundice 58 (11.3%) were the commonest diseases seen. Highest mortality (56.1%) was seen in babies who had birth weight below 1.5 kg (p value = 0.001). Conclusion: LBW is a major cause of hospitalization and mortality. RDS and sepsis were the most frequent diseases noted in LBW babies. Immediate care following birth is vital for babies already at risk of LBW.