BMI BASAL METABOLIC INDEX AND RETINOPATHY IN TYPE 2 DIABETICS.
Background: Diabetes mellitus is major health concern owing to its morbidity and mortality attributed to the complications related to chronic hyperglycemia of T2DM. A darker aspect among these complication is threat to vision produced by diabetic retinopathy (DR). Obesity is among major risk factors for diabetes mellitus. Consequently, overweight and obese people are more vulnerable to develop DR. Objectives: To compare the basal metabolic index in type two diabetics with and without diabetic retinopathy. To correlate basal metabolic index with diabetic retinopathy. Study Design: Comparative Cross sectional analysis. Setting: Type two diabetic patients were recruited from Outpatient department of Layton Rahmatulla Benevolent Trust Eye Hospital, Lahore. They were categorized in two groups based on the presence and absence of diabetic retinopathy. Period: 1st July, 2016 to 30th Aug., 2017. Methodology: Collected data from the 80 enrolled patients included gender, age, duration of type two diabetes mellitus and status of diabetic retinopathy after assessment by ophthalmologists. The anthropometric measurements i.e. height, weight and BMI were taken by following the protocols mentioned in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)-anthropometry procedure manual 2009 (CDC, 2012). Body mass index was calculated as weight in kg divided by the square of height in meters. Data was analyzed on SPSS version 22. For comparison of both groups, Independent “t” Test or Mann-Whitney U tests was applied accordingly. Correlation was accessed by spearman correlation test. Result: Out of 80 type two diabetic patients, females outnumbered the males 50(62.5). Overall 42(52.5%) had diabetic retinopathy of varying grade and eye involvement. Both study groups had matched age (p=0.45). However, a significant difference of duration of diabetes was observed between the groups (p=0.042). There was no significant difference of BMI between the groups (p=0.380). BMI was not correlated with severity of diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion: Although being overweight and obesity is thought to be risk factor for the development of type two diabetes even than it do not predispose the diabetic individual to develop diabetic retinopathy.