CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF RAW BOVINE MILK IN DISTRICT PESHAWAR
Keywords:Adulteration, Chemical composition, Bovine milk, Pakistan
Introduction: Milk and dairy products are consumed by the human on daily
basis throughout the globe and constitute a huge business by the dairy farmers due to its high
demand. The consumers of milk and milk products expect its high quality, free from the artificial
preservatives and threatening agents. Objectives: To determine the chemical quality of raw
bovine milk sold in open markets of district Peshawar. Study Design: Cross-sectional study.
Setting: 4 towns, Town 1(Sikandar Town and Gul Bahar) ,2 (Shahi Bala,Methra and Pajjagi),3
(University Road and Hayatabad Area), 4 (Hazaekhawani and Badabair Area) of district
Peshawar. Period: 6 months; from November 2016 to April 2017. Methodology: 158 samples
were selected. All samples were analyzed for adulteration in the Public Health Laboratory phase
5 Hayatabad Peshawar. Study duration was 6 months; convenient sampling technique has
been followed. Results: Among all 158 samples; 32.3% of the sample were adulterated with
water. 8.9% of sample showed hydrogen per oxide adulteration. Starch, cane sugar and urea
adulteration was in 7.6%, 2.5% and 1.9% samples respectively. Vegetable oil, formalin and
synthetic milk adulteration was in 1.9%, 5.7% and 5.7% of samples respectively. We have Large
Scale Vendors i.e. Rural Area 10% showing low and Urban Area 90% as high adulteration, Small
Scale Vendors 30% low in rural Area and 70% high adulteration in urban area respectively.
Conclusion: This study results provided a base line data of chemical composition of bovine
milk used in Peshawar. Chemical were present and can play key role in alteration of milk which
we use on daily basis. Water content was high, it means that most of the shop-keepers prefer to
mix water in milk to increase the quantity of milk. Use of starch, Vegetable Oil and Formalin was
minimal. Use of hydrogen peroxide, Urea and synthetic milk was very less in provided sample.