Study on red cell distribution width, haematocrit and red blood corpuscle (RBC) indices are early markers for the detection of coronary artery disease: a case control study.
Cardiovascular disease and its complications are mainly causes of coronary artery disease (CAD). The distribution width of red blood cells (RDW) is a quantitative measurement of the variance in circulating erythrocyte size. Various research publications have shown that patients with previous history coronary artery disease having greater levels of Red cell distribution width are on risk of mortality and cardiovascular events. We tested the hypothesis that Red cell distribution width, Hct, and other red blood corpuscle (RBC) indices are associated with CAD. Hence, we measured RDW, Hct, and other RBC indices in AMI and stable CAD (SCAD) and compared them with age- and sex-matched controls. Objectives: To study the changes in Red cell distribution width and RBC indices in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and SCAD and compare them with age- and sex-matched controls. Study Design: A comparative study. Setting: Department of Cardiology, Liaquat University Hospital. Period: 1st September 2013 to 28th February 2014. Material & Methods: 128 subjects (39 AMI patients, 24 SCAD patients and 65 controls). Venous samples from AMI subjects were collected in standardized ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) sample tubes on admission (within 6 h of chest pain). Using Sysmex KX21-N autoanalyzer, RDW and RBC indices were evaluated within 30 minutes of blood collection. Arterial blood samples were also obtained from stable CAD patients admitted to angiography and routine inspections. There has been no significant difference. Results: In total 128 patients, Mean ± SD of RDW patients with CAD was 14.12 ± 1.31%) as compared to controls (15.62 ± 6.51%) with insignificant difference (p value > 0.05). Mean ± SD of RDW patients with AMI was 14.36 ± 1.4% as compared to stable CAD (13.7 ± 1.09%) and controls (15.62 ± 6.51%) (p value > 0.05). Mean ± SD of RDW patients with Hct in patients with CAD was 43.16 ± 5% as compared to controls (41.9 ± 6.9%) with insignificant difference (p value > 0.05). Conclusions: There was no association between RWD, Hct, and other RBC indices with CAD, AMI, and stable CAD.