Risk factors of osteoporosis among post-menopausal women.
Objectives: This study was conducted to determine risk factors of osteoporosis in women after menopause. Study Design: Cross Sectional study. Setting: Sir Ganga Ram Hospital located in Lahore, a city of Pakistan. Period: 1st January 2018 to 31st July 2018 comprising on seven months duration. Material & Methods: An inclusion and exclusion criteria was formed. Patients diagnosed cases of osteoporosis presenting in out-patient door of the study institution during study period and falling in inclusion criteria were selected for the study. Those not falling in criteria were excluded from the study. A questionnaire was formed containing all necessary questions such as age of patient, risk factors of osteoporosis and age of menopause. All data was documented properly. A well informed written consent was taken from all patients for including them in the study. Consent was taken from the ethical committee of the study institution for conducting study. Privacy of data of patients was maintained. Data was analyzed using statistical software and Microsoft office version 2017. Results were calculated in the form of frequencies and percentages and presented via tables and graphs. P-value less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Total 115 post-menopausal females with osteoporosis were studied. Their age range was 35-63 years with mean age 46.7 years. Age of menopause among study females was found to be less than 40 years in 4.3% cases, between 41-45 years in 20.9% cases, between 46-50 years in 9.6% and between 51-55 years in 25.2%. Common risk factors of osteoporosis reported in study females include low calcium diet in 60.8% cases, family history of osteoporosis positive at least in one close relative, overweight in 57.4% and history of steroid intake for prolong period was found a cause of osteoporosis in 21.7% cases, excessive intake of soft drinks (more than 400ml daily) in 34.8% and excessive coffee intake (more than 2 cups daily) reported in 33%. Other risk factors include thyroid disease, ongoing hormonal replacement therapy, and prolonged immobilization. Conclusion: Osteoporosis is a common problem among females particularly in post menopausal period. Most common risk factors of this disease are improper diet and lack of physical activity. By spreading awareness of this disease in community, encouraging proper intake of calcium containing diet and daily exercise can reduce incidence of this disease.