RISK FACTOR ASSOCIATED WITH ST-SEGMENT ELEVATION MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN CARDIAC EMERGENCY OF ALLAMA IQBAL MEMORIAL TEACHING HOSPITAL. PREVALENCE AND COMPARISON
Keywords:ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction (AWMI), lateral wall Myocardial Infarction (LWMI), Inferior Wall Myocardial Infarction (IWMI), Left Bundle Branch Block (LBBB), Diabetes Mellitus (DM), Ischemic Heart Disease(IHD), Congestive Cardic Failure (CCF), Chronic Renal Failure (CRF), Chronic Liver Disease (CLD)
Objectives: The study was carried out to asserting the prevalence and comparative analysis of risk factor that are known to be associated with ST-segment elevation MI on the basis of genderin Emergency unit of cardiology department of Allama Iqbal Memorial Teaching Hospital, Sialkot. Study Design: Retrospective, observational study. Place and duration of Study: Department of Cardiology; Allama Iqbal Memorial Teaching Hospital, Sialkot. From 1st March 2017 till 28 Feb 2018. Patients and Methods: All patients presented in cardic emergency during specified time period at Allama Iqbal Memorial Teaching Hospital with new onset of ST segment elevation MI, having established risk factors (DM, Smoking, Family History of IHD, Obesity, Dyslipidemia) having completed follow up of 2 months were included in study. Patients were assigned in two group according to their respective gender for finding out prevalence of risk factors among them. Group-I included males while Group-II included females.Patients who didn’t completed followup, not willing to participate in study, who leave against medical advice, had CCF, CRF, CLD, LBBB, Coagulation abnormalities, stroke, any condition mimicking ST segment elevation other than STEMI were excluded from study. The data collected for variables was analyzed using SPSS v 22. Results: Three hundred and fifty (350) patients presented in cardic emergency were subjected to the study. Out of 350, 20 patients didn’t complete the follow-up of 2 months. Ten patients didn’t give consent to be included in the study while 15 patients were excluded in accordance with the exclusion criteria and 5 patients were left against medical advice. Out of 300 patients studied 233 of patients (77.7%) were males and 67(22.3%) of patients were female, with male to female ratio of 3.5:1.0. Among age group variation patients in range of 41-50 years constitute 40.3% (121 patients) of cases. Smoking as a risk factor constitute 70.4%(164 pt.) and Diabetes mellitus 62.3% (43pt.) among males and females respectively. Anterior wall MI reports to be 62.20%(145 pt.) and 82.10%(55 pt.) among males and females followed by other types of STEMI. Conclusion: Smoking is identified as an independent risk factor that can lead to STEMI in young males while Diabetes Mellitus and hypertension identified as a risk factor for progression to STEMI in females. Among non-modifiable factors male sex, old adults and family history identified as factors that can lead to STEMI.