• Sana Zafar Islam Dental College Sialkot.
  • Danish Javaid Islam Dental College Sialkot.
  • Hanna Abdul Majeed Islam Dental College Sialkot.
  • Khurram Anwar Isra Dental College Hyderabad.
  • Mudassar Iqbal Arain University of Sindh, Jamshoro.
  • Muhammad Ali Ghoto University of Sindh, Jamshoro.



Enamel,, Synchrotron X-ray,, Diffraction and Remineralised.


Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to determine from where
the demineralisation of crystals occur in enamel during carious process and where the new
crystals will form during remineralization. Material and Methods: Synchrotron x-ray diffraction
technique was used to determine the crystal orientation and texture of enamel for a Period: of
02 years during 2010 and 2011. It was done on extracted teeth. 10 sides of a single tooth were
analysed and a total of 100 teeth were examined. Sample analysis was done using composite
imaging and powder diffraction using Fit 2D software. Settings: The study was done at Queen
Mary University of London, Miles End Campus England. Sections of a tooth were taken having
1) healthy control enamel 2) natural carious enamel 3) artificially demineralized enamel and
4) artificially remineralized enamel. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction was carried out and two
dimensional images of the areas of the tooth were collected. A 20μmx20μm beam spot was
used to collect images at high resolution in order to see the changes that occur in a small
region of interest. First the Fit2D software was used for powder diffraction data processing
and later Origin software was used obtain the texture values of the above mentioned areas.
Results: Comparison of the side and cuspal both for the control and carious enamel showed
that the carious enamel has a better texture than the control enamel. Also a repetition of the
pattern after every 60 to 100um was seen in the cuspal enamel both in the control and carious
enamel respectively. Conclusion: The natural carious enamel showed a better texture and
more orientation from the healthy control enamel. This indicates that the continuous processes
of demineralization and remineralization which occur in enamel during caries may have some
effects in increasing the texture of enamel since the mineral left in the carious enamel has a
higher degree of crystallite orientation than the control enamel.

Author Biographies

Sana Zafar, Islam Dental College Sialkot.

BDS, MSC (Oral Biology)
Assistant Professor

Danish Javaid, Islam Dental College Sialkot.

BDS, MSC (Oral Pathology)
Assistant Professor

Hanna Abdul Majeed, Islam Dental College Sialkot.

BDS, FCPS (Operative Dentistry)
Assistant Professor

Khurram Anwar, Isra Dental College Hyderabad.

BDS, MSC (Operative Dentistry)
Assistant Professor

Mudassar Iqbal Arain, University of Sindh, Jamshoro.

Pharm-D, Ph.D
Faculty of Pharmacy,

Muhammad Ali Ghoto, University of Sindh, Jamshoro.

B-Pharm, Ph,D
Associate Professor
Faculty of Pharmacy,